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Caligula, the great-grandson of Augustus, was the third emperor of Rome. His name actually was Gaius, with Caligula being a nickname he hated later in life. In fact, hate was a common theme of his rule (37-41 AD).
Found buried in the ruins of Pompeii is a bit of graffiti with some magic to it. In this square, you can read forwards, backwards, up, or down, and still get the same message. But along with that is a hidden message of Christianity.
How much did teachers make in the ancient world? Since the Romans valued education, it had to have been more than the ancient sports figures, right?
The supines are an amazing to say bit of complex grammar. It is a strange fourth declension verbal noun only found in two cases: the accusative and ablative singular. This video covers formation and translation of this very weird noun... verb... verbal noun. Mirabile dictu!
fourth declension nouns verbs
Ancient Rome didn't have a part of its government devoted to collecting taxes. In fact, Rome didn't have much of a government at all under the Caesars. So how could the public be exploited through taxes? Enter the publicani, equestrians with tax collecting contracts.
The storm arrives with the clashing of winds, and huge waves are driven to the shore. We also get our first appearance of Aeneas, our hero. He wishes for death and reminisces on the glories of the Trojan War and the past.
The storm arrives and destroys much of the Trojan fleet. Many of Aeneas' ships are lost, driven either into sand bars and reefs, or sucked into a devouring whirlpool. Vergil uses a lot of metrical effects to emphasize the devastating nature of this storm.
Neptune arrives on the scene of the storm and sees the wreckage of Aeneas' fleet. He summons the winds and rebukes them for daring to overturn the seas and Neptune's power. Then he sends the winds back to Aeolus, promising a much greater punishment.
Neptune arrives onto the scene of the storm and quells the turbid waters. He does this much like an orator calms an angry mob. A pious orator, and a mob fueled by rage.
After the storm, Aeneas and his seven ships finally arrive at a safe harbor in Africa. This section has our first ekphrasis as Vergil describes the geography of the place in vivid detail.